The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released its plan in June for cutting carbon pollution from power plants by 2030, using four building blocks to achieve targeted reductions.
Each building block represents a category of measures that states can use to meet the first-ever federal regulation for reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) from existing power plants. The agency included energy efficiency, creating a path for states to reduce both greenhouse gases and consumer energy bills, but overlooked combined heat and power (CHP). The American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy noted that the readily available energy resource could provide states with substantial energy savings.
For the EPA to include a policy measure as a building block in its proposal, the energy savings it provides should be cost-effective, adequately demonstrated and there should be lots of it. CHP meets these criteria by providing both energy and environmental advantages over separate heat and power systems. An ACEEE study found CHP represents around 18 Gigawatts of avoided capacity, and that installing the technology could save more than 68 million Megawatt-hours of energy by 2030. Those energy savings could cut CO2 emissions and offset the need for about 36 power plants.
In addition to offering energy and environmental benefits, CHP is a well-established resource, widely in use in industrial facilities, hospitals and universities to reduce operating costs and ensure reliability. According to the Department of Energy, it currently represents 8 percent of installed U.S. electric generating capacity and more than 12 percent of total electricity generation, and has the potential to achieve much more. A study from Oak Ridge National Laboratory found CHP could reach up to 20 percent of U.S. generating capacity by 2030. Including CHP as a strategy for meeting CO2 reduction goals will encourage greater investment in the efficient technologies that deliver environmental and economic benefits.
States make their move
Another advantage of treating CHP as an energy efficiency measure is that it can provide emissions reductions at a lower cost than other sources. A handful of states, including New York, California, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and others, are developing innovative approaches to increase deployment of CHP to gain its energy savings and emissions benefits. ACEEE is urging EPA to encourage states to use CHP and provide guidance to help states include energy savings from CHP in their compliance plans. Source: American Council for and Energy Efficient Economy, 9/4/2014
Carbon dioxide, the stuff we associate with exacerbating climate change, can actually help prevent climate change and save a lot of energy when used in the right technologies for appropriate applications, such as washing machines and water heaters.
CO2 washing machines Commercial and industrial washing machines may be the last place you would expect to use CO2. This non-flammable, non-toxic, naturally occurring gas can be pressurized to become a liquid and used to clean laundry. In liquid form, CO2 has low viscosity and acts as a surfactant, which allows proprietary detergent formula to penetrate the fabric better than detergent in hot water. Liquid CO2 also disinfects, making it a good option for hospitals and industries with clean rooms, and a single machine can clean 100 to 200 pounds of laundry per hour.
Once the clothes are clean, the CO2 is depressurized so it flashes back into a gas and the laundry is instantly dry. No dryer is needed, which greatly reduces energy use. The liquid gas does not harm delicate fabrics, and clothing lasts longer because high-temperature water and machine agitation are not needed. After each wash, the CO2 is captured, filtered, distilled, re-pressurized and reused.
CO2 washers are appropriate for large, centralized cleaning operations, such as hotels, hospitals, uniform cleaning companies, prisons, nursing homes, textile plants and industries with clean rooms.
According to a recent study by the California Energy Commission (CEC), CO2 washing machines achieved a 60-percent reduction in electrical energy use and a 46-percent reduction in natural gas use when compared with water-based cleaning. Eliminating water use completely provides users with additional savings. The CEC estimates that 8,000 facilities in California would be good candidates for this technology. Just a five-percent market penetration in that one state could save 264 million kilowatt-hours, 20 million therms, and more than 600 million gallons of water, according to the CEC. The bottom line is that an investment in CO2 washers could have a two- to four-year payback.
CO2 heat pump water heaters Another up-and-coming CO2 technology is the CO2 heat pump water heater (HPWH). Similar to the HPWHs available at home improvement stores, CO2 models are even more efficient at generating hot water for washing and space heating (with radiant floor, radiators, etc.).
Like CO2 washing machines, these water heaters compress CO2 until it becomes a liquid (at about 1,400 pounds per square inch). CO2 is more efficient than conventional refrigerants, and it has 1,000 times less effect on climate change.
The water tank is larger than a conventional water heater—usually about 80 gallons—allowing for some stratification of the water. The coolest water at the bottom of the tank is piped to the compressor for reheating, which optimizes efficiency. The water temperature is also higher than with a conventional water heater—about 150°F. The higher temperature, combined with a bigger tank, means that more people can take showers before the hot water runs out, even if the system turns off for a while during a utility’s peak demand reduction program.
In the split system version, the compressor and condensing fan are in a separate unit outside, which eliminates noise inside. The variable-speed drives on the fan, compressor and pump (the key to making this equipment so efficient) reduce the noise from the outside unit even more, meaning CO2 HPWHs are usually much quieter than conventional models. This also means the unit does not draw conditioned air from inside the home or small commercial building to heat the water, as un-ducted, single-unit HPWHs do. A smaller (40 gallon), single-unit, ducted CO2 HPWH may be available in the U.S. in the future. Like the larger split-system version, it benefits from CO2 refrigerant, variable speed and use of outside air.
Even with a bigger tank, hotter water, a highly pressurized refrigerant and a compressor that pulls heat out of outside air during the winter, this technology uses less energy than conventional HPWHs: its efficiency is about 50 percent greater than conventional HPWHs, which are about twice as efficient as a conventional electric water heater. The delivery rate, measured by the number of back-to-back showers you can take without running out of hot water, is also about 50 percent better than a conventional HPWH. CO2 HPWHs can be especially efficient when used in applications such as a commercial kitchen where the “outside” unit can be mounted high on a wall to provide hot water and cool air.
Right now, CO2 HPWHs are available in the U.S. only in larger sizes for commercial and industrial applications. But the largest manufacturer expects to roll out their residential version in the U.S. in early 2015. The technology has been used in Asia, Europe and Australia for many years. Learn more about these and other new and emerging technologies from Energy Efficiency Emerging Technologies.